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Eternal Youth: Separating Fact From Fiction

By Tom Seest

Are Anti Aging Drugs the Fountain Of Youth?

At GettingOlderNews, we help people who want to learn more about aging and anti-aging.

Anti aging drugs are drugs designed to prevent or postpone age-related decline. Such medicines can reduce inflammation, improve insulin sensitivity and slow cellular senescence.
Scientists recently discovered that rapamycin, a medication typically prescribed to treat kidney disease, could extend mouse lifespan significantly and even help protect them from age-related illnesses like cardiovascular disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Are Anti Aging Drugs the Fountain Of Youth?

Are Anti Aging Drugs the Fountain Of Youth?

Is Metformin the Key to Slowing Down Aging?

Metformin is an inexpensive, generic drug used to manage blood sugar in those living with diabetes. But recently, it has also earned itself a reputation as an anti-aging medication; research shows it delays stem cell aging, increases autophagy, and slows telomere shortening while simultaneously decreasing oxidative stress levels, which contributes to both aging and disease processes.
Metformin’s use for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients goes beyond simply managing blood sugar. It has also proven useful in managing irregular periods and fertility issues while decreasing weight gain. Furthermore, metformin may even counteract some side effects of psychotropic medications, which often cause weight gain.
Researchers attribute metformin’s anti-aging benefits to its ability to decrease insulin resistance within cells and the body, boost AMPK activity levels linked to healthy metabolism, increase cellular longevity, and change gut microbiome composition – effects which could explain its association with decreased risk for Alzheimer’s disease and cardiovascular diseases.
Though animal studies have linked metformin with longer lifespans in mice and worms, it remains difficult to prove its efficacy for human use. It’s important to keep in mind that most medications shown to extend health span and lifespan tend to work through single mechanisms, while metformin’s broad effects span multiple biological systems tied to age-related illnesses.
Researchers have used metformin for non-diabetic conditions as well. A recent study demonstrated that those who took metformin for five years experienced slower declines in physical function, decreased dementia risk, and lower risks overall. Targeting Aging with Metformin (TAME) trial will involve 3,000 participants at 14 medical centers nationwide under Nir Barzilai of the Institute for Aging Research; its completion is anticipated by October 2022.

Is Metformin the Key to Slowing Down Aging?

Is Metformin the Key to Slowing Down Aging?

How can Rapamycin help you turn back the clock?

Rapamycin is an immunosuppressant drug with various medical applications. As an immunosuppressant, it treats lung diseases, prevents organ transplant rejection, coats coronary stents in heart patients, and has even been proven to extend mice’s lifespan and show promise as an anti-aging medicine. Available by prescription as sirolimus with brand names including Rapamune and Fyarro, it works by inhibiting the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), responsible for cell growth regulation and signaling pathways as well as sensing oxygen energy and nutrients and then regulating metabolism.
Studies on genetic mouse models have demonstrated that rapamycin can extend longevity while slowing the progression of age-related disease phenotypes, including increased lifespan, improved cardiac and skeletal muscle function, reduced levels of senescence markers in the aortic wall, preserved brain blood flow preservation, and decreased neuroinflammation.
These results indicate that inhibition of mTOR may provide therapeutic value in treating various age-related diseases, including Alzheimer’s and cancer. However, it should be noted that rapamycin has serious metabolic side effects for humans, and some basic researchers believe it should not be routinely used as an anti-aging treatment, calling instead for safer alternatives like rapalogs to be developed.
Metformin, an FDA-approved medication with no known metabolic side effects, is used by millions of people around the world and continues to make waves globally. Rapamycin or everolimus acts similarly in that they both inhibit mTORC1 activity and block cell growth, however rapamycin or everolimus has more promising clinical trials underway which show promise in slowing down human aging processes.
Rapamycin research is still in its infancy, yet has shown significant benefits in human cells and mouse models. It offers an attractive option as it lacks metformin’s metabolic side effects and acts as an inhibitor of mTORC1. A few hurdles remain before rapamycin can become a viable anti-aging medication; these include bypassing feedback activation of survival pathways as well as overthrowing resistance to the drug among some cells.

How can Rapamycin help you turn back the clock?

How can Rapamycin help you turn back the clock?

Can Rilmenidine Reverse Aging Effects?

Rilmenidine has been proven to help halt worm aging, suggesting it could serve as an anti aging remedy in humans. A promising candidate, it reduces accessible energy while still providing nutritional needs with enough calories – similar to caloric restriction – while simultaneously prolonging life span and health span of Caenorhabditis elegans through action of I1-imidazoline receptor known as Nish-1. These findings were published in Aging Cell.
Researchers discovered that Nish-1 regulates gene activity associated with caloric restriction’s longevity benefits in mice treated with Rilmenidine; changes were seen in their kidney and liver tissues; there was also a decrease in microalbuminuria and left ventricular hypertrophy – both markers of cardiovascular disease. These results make Nish-1 an attractive target for future study; researchers are currently testing human Nish-1 antagonists to see whether or not they extend life and improve quality of life in a clinical trial setting.
Rilmenidine is a widely prescribed oral antihypertensive with strong potential to be taken orally by humans in the future, due to its mild side-effects and non-severe nature. Recently it has been repositioned for treating insulin resistance and polyglutamine diseases; but new research suggests it may also serve as an anti-aging remedy.
An open, prospective study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and safety of monotherapy with rilmenidine in perimenopausal women with essential hypertension. Fifty-five participants enrolled for this trial; baseline and 12-week measurements of their SBP, DBP, heart rate, fasting glucose, serum creatinine levels, and total cholesterol were collected, as well as assessments for quality of life (QoL) using two standard questionnaires.
The research was led by Joao Pedro de Magalhaes, a molecular biogerontologist from Liverpool’s Institute of Ageing Research who is now at Birmingham’s Department of Life Sciences. As with other age-related processes, delaying it even slightly could reap immense rewards; because aging involves multiple genes and pathways. A drug capable of activating some or even all of them would represent a substantial advance in anti-ageing medicines.

Can Rilmenidine Reverse Aging Effects?

Can Rilmenidine Reverse Aging Effects?

Can Senolytics Reverse Aging?

Senolytics are drugs designed to eliminate senescent cells and facilitate tissue regeneration, potentially delaying age-related diseases and increasing lifespan. Current research is exploring these drugs as potential ways of delaying their onset and prolonging healthspan. Senolytics come in the form of drugs, plant extracts, or peptides; their action relies on inhibiting signaling pathways responsible for the accumulation of senescent cells in vivo while suppressing proapoptotic and inflammatory factors production and secretion by these cells as well as reducing senescent cell secretions of chemokines/cytokines which attract immune cells to sites of injury/inflammation.
Senolytics are designed to target specific senescent cells found at sites of disease and dysfunction in preclinical models, with SASP-expressing cells being the target. These drugs cause these senescent cells to undergo apoptosis, removing these cells and restoring normal function. They have already shown promising results in preclinical studies; however, further development in terms of specificity, toxicity, and delivery systems must occur for clinical success.
Cellular senescence can contribute to multiple chronic disorders. In skin tissue, for example, senescent fibroblasts accumulating in the dermis and hair follicles reduce the proliferation and repopulation of stem cells, slowing their proliferation rate. This process may be furthered by overexpression of SASP proteins, which inhibit paracrine cell communication pathways. ABT737’s anti-senescent properties help reverse these effects by eliminating senescent cells while stimulating the proliferation of non-senescent bulge cells; however, their clinical translation presents many off-target toxicities that reduce their potential as anti-aging therapies.
Lung aging accelerates respiratory function loss and leads to lung diseases like obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, among others. A novel senolytic drug targeting the MDM2 protein that destabilizes p53 has been tested successfully on human lung biopsies; human biopsies revealed it could reduce senescent cell accumulation while improving pulmonary function; its efficacy is being assessed in a Phase 2 clinical trial for obstructive pulmonary disease.
Senolytics offer an innovative new solution to treating diseases associated with aging. Used for multiple aging-related conditions and slowing down Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia, senolytics may extend human health spans by decreasing multimorbidity and improving quality of life.

Can Senolytics Reverse Aging?

Can Senolytics Reverse Aging?

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