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Unveiling the Fountain Of Youth

By Tom Seest

Can Stem Cells and Hormones Slow Aging?

At GettingOlderNews, we help people who want to learn more about aging and anti-aging.

While traditional therapies extend lifespans, they don’t address aging itself. Google-backed Calico and Peter Thiel’s rejuvenation-oriented biotech Unity are among several companies experimenting with biological reprogramming to extend lifespan.
Research in both worms and mice indicates that reversing epigenetic degradation may help prolong health span and lifespan. Sinclair’s team administered four proteins called Yamanaka factors to elderly-appearing mice to transform adult skin cells into pluripotent stem cells capable of becoming any tissue type in their bodies.

Can Stem Cells and Hormones Slow Aging?

Can Stem Cells and Hormones Slow Aging?

Can Stem Cells Really Reverse the Aging Process?

Stem cells are our body’s repair and maintenance cells. They play an essential role in creating specialized cells to support specific tissues or organs – for instance, hematopoietic stem cells are responsible for producing blood cells; basal stem cells produce skin cells; mesenchymal stem cells provide support to bone, muscle, and fat, whilst mesenchymal stem cells support bone, muscle, and fat. Stem cells produce substances to reduce inflammation, modulate immunity systems, and promote tissue repair/regeneration while playing an integral part in anti-aging processes – working alongside Klotho or other anti-aging genes, they can help slow down this process while also improving health/lifespan significantly.
Scientists are researching stem cells as a means of treating various diseases and injuries, specifically severe burns. Their investigations include discovering how stem cells can transform into specific kinds of cells that specialize in healing damaged tissue; for instance, turning stem cells into skin cells to heal severe burns could help greatly. Furthermore, researchers are exploring whether stem cells could become nerve cells to restore function for people living with Parkinson’s disease, as well as heart cells, which might replace those damaged by heart attacks.
Embryonic stem cells are considered the most potent type of stem cell and hold great promise in treating disease. Their differentiation capabilities extend to virtually every kind of cell in the body – from insulin-making cells for Type 1 diabetes patients to brain cells damaged in Parkinson’s disease sufferers. Stem cells also regenerate quickly following injury; however, as we age, these regenerative abilities may diminish.
Salamanders and flatworms exhibit impressive feats of regeneration, yet scientists are yet to uncover how humans might replicate such feats. Researchers are studying stem cells as an avenue to understanding regeneration’s process – with hopes of manipulating cells to speed up regeneration processes in humans.
Scientists have also demonstrated how older cells can be made more youthful by coaxing them to temporarily express proteins used for induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell formation. This method has already shown promise in treating some conditions, such as blindness and spinal cord injuries.

Can Stem Cells Really Reverse the Aging Process?

Can Stem Cells Really Reverse the Aging Process?

Can Hormesis be the Key to Slowing Down Aging?

Hormesis has been around for more than 100 years. It is a concept used to explain a phenomenon known as activating protective mechanisms in response to an external challenge, leading to longer lives and improved health in various species and biological systems. Examples of hormetic effects are radiation exposure, food restriction (calorie restriction or CR), hot and cold stressors, hypergravity exposure, toxic chemicals that normally would be toxic, and hypergravity conditions; its mechanism involves complex signal transduction processes coordinating into one holistic response.
Hormesis was first proposed by Dr. Thomas Luckey of the University of Missouri and then independently researched by scientists in radiation, toxicology, and pharmacology. This intellectual shift was precipitated by unexpected biphasic dose responses during toxicology experiments as well as demands by regulatory agencies such as United States Environmental Protection Agency for mechanistic explanations for all agents that are regulated.
Biphasic dose responses can be difficult to identify as they often exhibit small to moderate sizes and unpredictable timing, making their detection challenging. They must be detected through careful comparisons between dose response data and threshold models – an intensive and costly undertaking; to detect toxic doses also requires extensive kinetic experiments which produce responses over multiple timescales, complicating analysis further with nonlinearity.
However, hormetic responses have been observed across numerous biological models and agents. Perhaps the earliest and best-known examples were seen in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; these observations led to the creation of the general concept of hormesis that has now been extended to many systems and chemical agents. Wide application has been made easier thanks to high-throughput cell screening methods for biphasic dose responses, which allow screening for these responses in large numbers of experimental models and the identification of an array of endpoints.

Can Hormesis be the Key to Slowing Down Aging?

Can Hormesis be the Key to Slowing Down Aging?

How Can Hormones Help You Stay Younger Longer?

Hormones are chemical messengers produced in glands, sent out from them into various cells throughout the body to give instructions about how they should operate. Hormones play an essential role in muscle growth, metabolism, and mood regulation – any changes to levels can have dramatic repercussions throughout our organism.
As we age, our bodies’ production of hormones diminishes significantly and this has been linked with several health conditions including osteoporosis, heart disease, high cholesterol and depression. Studies have demonstrated that increasing hormone levels may help alleviate some symptoms; however, researchers continue to experiment with various strategies in order to achieve this goal.
One promising approach is bioidentical hormones, synthetic hormones derived from plant sources like soy and yams that mimic those produced naturally by our bodies, yet do not increase disease risks. Research has suggested these can have similar results but without increasing risks of disease.
Scientists are also exploring senolytics, or molecules which kill senescent cells (old, damaged or abnormal cells that no longer produce new proteins or carry out essential biological functions), which could increase cell renewal while decreasing the incidence of certain diseases like cancer. Research is ongoing in this field.
Anti-aging hormone therapy industries operate under the belief that levels of human growth hormone (HGH) begin to drop significantly after middle age and that replenishing it with artificial HGH treatments can restore youthful muscle and bone mass. Rudman et al.’s 1990 article published in the New England Journal of Medicine showed this was indeed effective; their article demonstrated its beneficial effects by showing improved muscle tone and body composition of older men after HGH injections were given. Unfortunately, although HGH injections may be popularly prescribed, only certain medical conditions are approved by the FDA, while hormone treatments that contain synthetic estrogen or dehydroepiandrosterone have been linked with breast cancer risk such as blood clots, heart disease, or stroke.
University of Virginia scientists have unlocked an effective strategy to delay aging by detoxifying our bodies of glycerol and glyceraldehyde – two harmful by-products of fat accumulation that erode health over time. They did this by activating adh-1 gene, stimulating production of enzymes that remove them.

How Can Hormones Help You Stay Younger Longer?

How Can Hormones Help You Stay Younger Longer?

Can Your DNA Determine How Long You’ll Live?

As science progresses, researchers are starting to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying aging. One key discovery was that it does not just result from mutations to DNA alone but also from the degradation of the epigenome, a set of molecules that control gene activation or silencing. By manipulating epigenome, scientists now have the potential to slow down aging while mitigating many associated diseases.
Scientists have long recognized that gene expression alters with age, leading to new proteins appearing that contribute to aging and disease risk. But until recently, scientists weren’t able to pin down exactly how this happened; studies conducted led them to create “aging clocks”, using chemical modifications in DNA and histones that correlate closely with chronological age and can be used as reliable predictors of disease or death from age-related conditions.
Scientists working on anti-aging research had until recently focused on discovering genes associated with longevity or specific age-related diseases, and while this has proven invaluable, a more holistic approach must now be taken in order to fully comprehend how genetic influences impact aging processes.
Studies of long-lived mutant animals have shed light on these complex processes, with several laboratories employing genetically modified mice as experimental subjects to test out various interventions. Such experiments often prove more reliable than human studies because inbred animals mimicking humans can quickly be evaluated for signs of beneficial or deleterious side effects.
An experimental drug that has successfully reset the genetic clocks of laboratory mice could one day be used to treat various age-related conditions, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Called rapamycin, this medicine works by blocking certain enzymes which degrade epigenome.

Can Your DNA Determine How Long You'll Live?

Can Your DNA Determine How Long You’ll Live?

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